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Barriers to the Adoption of Building Information Modeling in the Jordanian Building Industry

Building Industry

In the last decade, construction industry has witnessed Building Industry a huge transformation in term of the use of digital technologies, and particularly Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM is a revolutionary digital Building Industry technology and process that is reshaping the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. Though, internationally, BIM has gained a great reputation for boosting productivity in AEC industry, but it holds undeveloped possibilities for providing and supporting AEC industry in Jordan. This study aims at exploring the adoption of BIM within the Jordanian construction industry. To achieve this objective, the research commenced by carrying out an intensive literature reviews on the implementation of BIM world-wide and in Middle East, which was utilized to identify the benefits and challenges of BIM in construction industry. An exploratory study was then conducted using an on-line survey to identify the current level of BIM experience, and to define the perceived benefits and challenges facing BIM implementation. Findings reveal that the adoption of BIM in Jordan is still in a very primitive phase and it faces numbers of critical barriers such as, but not limited to, the absence of government incentives, the lack of BIM standards, lack of BIM awareness, lack of BIM need, cost and resistance to change. Similarly, the study identified the main perceived potential benefits of BIM that were: “clash detection”, “minimizing conflicts and changes” and “reducing rework”. This research represents a first step towards understanding the current situation of BIM implementation in Jordan. It can help AEC practitioners in Jordan recognize potential areas in which BIM can be useful in AEC practice. However, it provides a benchmark for future studies that should tackle several other avenues further.

Although the construction industry is considered one of the biggest industries worldwide [1] , it is still lagging behind other industries in terms of productivity, efficiency, quality and sustainability. For industries other than construction, improved productivity could be attributed to advances in and increased usage of information technologies, increased competition due to globalization, and changes in workplace practices and organizational structures. Since the traditional industry model has no significant changes accompanying the introduction of new digital tools and technologies; therefore, it still exhibits a low maturity in the use of IT that has negative reflection on its productivity level. Many studies [2] [3] were conducted to address this gap between building industry and IT, one of the most important studies was conducted in 2004 by the National Research Council (NRC) that focused on providing strategy for advancing the competitiveness, efficiency and productivity of the U.S. construction industry. Findings of this study identified that interoperable technology application, also called Building Information Modeling (BIM) is not just the key solution, but also the most promising in terms of improving the quality, timeliness, cost?effec- tiveness and sustainability of construction projects.

BIM is an improved process and a tool that involves applying and maintaining an integrated digital representation of different information across various phases of a building construction project [1] [4] [5] [6] . This technology, covering the entire life cycle of the building can create, coordinate, document, manage/operate and update information about a particular facility. This is a major change in the process of transforming the construction industry worldwide [7] . Accordingly, the implementation of BIM supports the concept of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) which is a novel project delivery approach to integrate people, systems, business structures and practices into a collaborative process to reduce waste (of time, sources, money) and optimize efficiency through all phases of the project life cycle. Many governments have set implementations strategies for the use of BIM [8] on construction projects that has resulted in the wide spread of the adoption of BIM for instance, the UK [9] , USA [10] and Australia [11] . Although, BIM has been on the global construction industry market for a number of years, BIM related technologies are just emerging in Jordan. Yet, there is no study that investigated the current situation of BIM adoption within the construction industry in Jordan. This study investigates the current Jordanian construction industry practices and uses of BIM:

・ Assess the level of BIM adoption;

・ Identify the benefits and challenges of BIM adoption; and

It is expected that this study is necessary to help practitioners in the construction industry to understand the value of BIM for their organizations and projects.

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Assessment and Retrofit of the Bridge over Kouris River, Cyprus

the Bridge over

The main objective of the present study is the assessment and retrofit of an existing road bridge that is located in the Bridge over Cyprus over the river Kouris. In particular the study concerns in the Bridge over a road bridge with seven spans of 10.5 m + 5 * 12.6 m + 10.5 m, a cross section width of 7.10 m and a 5 m piers height that was constructed in the early 50’s. The structural system of the bridge comprises of cast in situ reinforced concrete T-beams and slab deck that is simply supported on masonry piers. According to the new urban plan to design the bridge should now accommodate two lanes per direction, a pedestrian walkway and a cycling lane with total cross section width of new deck 15.60 m. The deck of the bridge widened using for aesthetic reasons the same cross section type and the new T-Beams and slab deck connected monolithically to the existing one. The existing part of the deck was strengthened with reinforced concrete jacketing due to inadequacy in shear resistance. Major challenge of the project posed the existing masonry pier layout that was insufficient to carry the new design seismic forces. New piers, founded on piles, were designed adjacent to the existing piers in order to support the new widened part of the bridge, and also to bear all the horizontal loads arising from the masses of the total deck. Sliding bearings (free movement) placed in the part of the bridge over the existing piers and elastomeric bearings with movement only in the longitudinal direction placed in the new piers.

The bridge over river Kouris that will be discussed in this paper is part of the old national road Limassol-Paphos near ancient Kourion at Episkopi Cyprus. The existing bridge was constructed in the early 50’s and is 83.60 m long with seven spans (Figure 1). Its carriageway consists of one lane per direction and lies on a straight line in plan and elevation. The total width of the deck (including the sidewalks) is 6.45 m.

According to the new master plan of Episkopi Municipality the old national road has to be widened and upgraded in order to carry heavier traffic loads. Thus a new cross section of the road was decided which accommodates two lanes per direction a pedestrian walkway and a cycling lane with total cross section width of the new deck 15.60 m. Also the new bridge has to satisfy the much newer strictest seismic code (Eurocode 8) which is applicable in Cyprus.

Following the above restrictions a detailed study was carried out in order to find the most economical and advanced solution for the river crossing. At the following pages we will present the proposed retrofit design that was selected as the most economical for the existing bridge, the advanced seismic solutions that were given so as to account for the high seismicity of the region and the new traffic loads as mentioned above. Also we should mention that although the river has medium to high flow with a river bed of approximately 85 m thanks to the advanced structural solution no pier retrofit was required and so no riverbed rearrangement was needed leading to higher saving to the Municipally.

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Soil Structure Interaction Effects on Pushover Analysis of Short Span RC Bridges

Pushover Analysis

A three dimensional finite element of nonlinear pushover analysis for short span Reinforced Concrete (RC) bridge with circular piers cross section is modeling to present effects of soil structural interaction (SSI). Structural elements models are Pushover Analysis including linear foundation springs modeling, and nonlinear RC piers modeling. The paper succeeded to present the SSI effects of nonlinear pushover analysis of short spans RC bridges to determine the significant effects on dynamic characteristics and displacement capacity of short span RC bridges performance; that is increasing within range 11% to 20% compared to baseline pushover analysis of bridge without SSI effects. Results show the bridge stiffness decreases due to SSI effects on the bridge support for more flexible soils types that generates large displacement, with corresponding less base shear in bridge piers and footings by average percentage 12% and 18%, which is important for structural evaluation for new bridge construction and also, for strengthening and repair works evaluation of existing bridges.

The modeling and seismic analysis of bridge structures have been a major evolution over recent decades linked directly to the rapid development of digital computing. Both static and dynamic analysis of bridge systems experienced major breakthroughs when finite-element techniques were developed. In past, elastic analysis procedures used for bridge structural assessment which is not sufficient for inelastic action occurred. Nonlinear dynamic analysis become essential for bridges structural assessment however, it’s costly consuming. For that, nonlinear static analysis (pushover) becomes preferable inelastic seismic behavior tool in structural evaluation of bridges because of its low costs and time consuming.

In many of previous studies on bridges that included SSI as well as inelasticity in bridge pier resulted in conflicting opinion on the role of structural inelasticity on seismic demand.

In conventional bridges analysis, their bases are considered fixed bases; very limited investigations have focused on identifying SSI in bridges supporting on shallow foundation. Flexibility levels of the supporting soil will be depended on the soil types and soil parameters from medium to soft soils. This decreases the overall stiffness of the bridge resulting in a subsequent increase in the natural periods of the system and the overall response is altered. The soil structure interaction will have significant effect on the overall capacity curve of bridge under pushover analysis, which is reflected on the failure mode of superstructure of bridge, [4] , [5] , and [6] .

In previous study, [5] showed that effect of SSI in bridges was more strongly influenced by the nonlinear structural properties of bridge sub-structure components than by soil properties. However, this advance in computational capabilities of soil structure interaction effects on the static nonlinear analysis (pushover analysis) has been fully reflected in improved seismic design of new, or vulnerability assessment and retrofit of existing bridge structures. analysis tools currently available aid the process of designing new or retrofitting existing bridge structures subjected to earthquake taking inconsideration SSI on pushover analysis of bridge’s piers to enhance the capacity curve of piers which reflects on the structural assessment and strengthening of existing bridges.

The study focused on simple finite element modeling of multi-spans of short span RC bridge without curve or skew in plan or elevation as it is shown in the following parts. SAP2000 is the finite element that is used in simulation of nonlinear super structure and soil structure interaction by linear springs. Soil springs stiffness properties are not degradation with pushover load curve; as linear simulation of shallow foundation system of bridge footing. Bridge deck for this types of existing bridges in study case area is defined as no seismic forces in the Gulf zone; for that base isolation between bridge deck and its pier is missing and neglected in simulation.

The paper focus to present simple representation of a soil-bridge pier system, yet one able to capture the effects of the most significant physical parameters. It has been found that SSI greatly affects the dynamic behavior of bridge piers leading to more flexible systems, decrease damping and larger total bridge pier displacements. Besides a thorough investigation of the relative significance of various physical parameters of the system response, an easy-to-use approach that can be incorporated for a preliminary design of bridges and helpful for structural assessment, strengthening and/or rehabilitation of existing short span RC bridges.

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Sustainability of E-Trike as Alternative Mode of Public Transportation System

Transportation System

The City of Cabanatuan is dubbed as the “Tricycle Capital of the Philippines”. Tricycle is a three wheeled vehicle used to Transportation System transport people. Cabanatuan has about 30,000 registered gas-fed four-stroke motorized Transportation System tricycles. Tricycle operation in this City has become the source of livelihood for around 10,000 families. Its number has tremendously increased despite growing competition and declining net daily income and the adverse effects it brings to the environment. The study analyzed the different aspects in the adoption of E-trikes (electric tricycles) as a mode of public transport system replacing motorized tricycles in the city. The conceptual framework of sustainable development was used to analyze the data. Basic accounting method in determining return on investment and payback period were used to compare the cost and return from among the current mode of transportation as against the adoption of E-trike. Data gathering employed the interviews, survey questionnaires and focus group discussion. The three areas of sustainability measured in the study were economic, socio-political and environmental. The study showed that from among 412 tricycle driver-operators randomly selected, majority were amenable to the shift from engine propelled tricycle to E-trike. However, cost of E-trike deters adoption and full implementation by the City Government. Political issue is also the utmost consideration since work displacement is imminent among the stakeholders once adoption of this mode takes place. On the other side, E-trike was found to be sustainable in the long run both on the point of view of operators and the riding public. The paper recommended that policy regulation be laid down, adopted, and implemented by the local government unit in response to the Philippines Cleaner Air Act.

The use of tricycle has become the mode of transportation in most developing cities of the world [1] . Tricycle (motorized and non-motorized) is the prime mode of intra-city transportation [2] though considered as informal sector, its impact on transportation and management is beyond question [3] . In China, working tricycles continue to provide social and economic needs despite the threat of being phased out due to the neoliberal mobility developing within the city [4] . In India, the same mode of transportation is used by common people which posed a major challenge to the growing population on how the government would maintain good air quality [5] . In Nigeria, the use of motorized tricycle is encouraged within the city limits to decongest the traffic [6] . In Metro Manila, Philippines, it is the prevailing mode of transportation using secondary streets occupying the front seat in local policy making in local governance and urban development [7] . In Cabanatuan City Philippines, this mode of transportation comprises more than 50% of conveyances in view of the limited routes that jeepneys could take [8] .

In the Philippines, electric tricycle or E-trike is the same as tricycle in terms of configuration or almost as similar to that of the traditional rickshaw which is three-wheeled, and can ferry several passengers and dependent on the body design and capacity of the motor engine. E-trike is run by electricity while the latter is gas-fed. A typical design popular in the Philippines is that a sidecar which is attached to the side of a motorcycle for carrying passengers.

The use of motorized tricycle is already a part of every Cabanatueno’s everyday living. It is used as a mode of commuting, freight delivery system, private family service and source of income. A rough estimate made by the City Legalization Office in charge of issuing franchise to tricycle operators showed that there are 10,000 driver-operators of motorized tricycle plying daily in the city with color-coding in place. The operation of tricycle generates a daily income equivalent to P2 million pesos or roughly 40,000U$ (at the exchange rate of 1U$ = P50) from the riding public. In a recent study conducted by Balaria, it was found that there is a dwindling 5U$ daily income in operating a tricycle compared to 10U$ to 20U$ per day during the last decade [9] . The study also found that Cabanatuan continued to experience increase in tricycle population due to: 1) high unemployment and absence of alternative livelihood; and 2) increase in commuting population. Despite this trend, tricycles remain to be the prime mode of transportation in the City.

The use of tricycle as a mode of transportation actually poses hazards and adverse effects on the environment [10] . Yumul quoted that about 34% of total vehicular population in the Philippines is made up of two-and three-wheelers which also become the major contributor to pollution and other environmental and health hazards [11] [12] The use of motorized tricycle is also identified as the source of noise and air pollution exposing the public to a greater danger of health-related problems [13] . For instance, a 2-stroke engine tricycle is known to contribute to air pollution [14] in Jakarta Indonesia. Tricycles are identified as one of the public transport systems causing excessive gas emission contributing to lead and nitrogen dioxide release in the atmosphere [15] . At present, 99% of the Cabanatuan’s tricycle population use four-stroke motor engines which generally produced higher carbon monoxide (CO); carbon dioxide(CO2), the ‘greenhouse gas’; and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), potential contributors to photochemical smog and to ozone layer depletion. According to Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Philippines’ carbon dioxide emissions would nearly quadruple in less than 25 years because of automobile and motorcycle use. In view of this, several options have been laid to address the problem. The formulation and strict implementation of Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 and the introduction of electric tricycle are among the identified solutions. Consequently, the ADB in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE) has begun introducing the use of E-trike to the Local Government Units (LGUs) to replace the motorized tricycles. E-trike reduces carbon dioxide emissions and minimizes air pollution. It also avoids excessive fuel consumption and reduces oil dependency, and eventually increase job opportunities and tricycle drivers’ income in the long run.

As part of culture and immediate source of livelihood among the residents of Cabanatuan, the change from motorized to E-tricycle is not just a mere policy issue. It affects not only those directly involved and its stakeholders, but to the whole system from planning to implementation. As of this writing the researchers have read no study conducted in Cabanatuan City, Philippines dealing specifically on the positive and negative effects of using E-trike in place of motorized tricycle. The social, political and economic impact of using electric-powered tricycle remains an unclear to most city folks. This is the gap that the study would like to address. In general, the study tried to explain the sustainability of using E-trike as a mode of public transportation in the city. It is specifically intended to:

a) Describe the tricycle industry in Cabanatuan City;

b) Describe the hazards of using four-stroke engine propelled three-wheeled tricycles to the environment and the community, and;

c) Determine the sustainability of adopting E-trike as an alternative mode of public transportation in the City and;

d) Describe the policy implication on the issue.

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Water Permeation through Cementitious Materials

Water Permeation

In this study, water permeation through cementitious materials was observed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The influence of cement type on the magnetic resonance signal was studied subsequent to determining the parameters required for Water Permeation imaging. Consequently, adequate imaging of water permeating through hardened cement paste (HCP) made with white Portland cement was achieved, while water permeation through ordinary Portland cement-based HCP yielded poor signal. HCPs maintained at various levels of relative humidity (RH) were observed, and the signal was detected only from those maintained at an RH of higher than 85%. The water permeation depths in HCP were observed by using MRI, and the measured depths were compared to those measured via a spraying water detector on the split surface of the specimens. As a result, good agreement was confirmed between the two methods. Additionally, MRI was applied to concrete specimens; although it was found that water was not detected when a lightweight aggregate was used, water permeation through concrete with limestone aggregate was detectable via MRI. MRI will help in understanding how water permeation causes and accelerates concrete deteriorations such as rebar corrosion and freezing and thawing.

Water is known to yield deleterious effects on concrete structures. To observe the depth of water permeation through concrete, the concrete specimen can be split to measure the depth of the surface colour changes [1] [2] . However, the determination of water permeation depth in concrete is difficult because 70% to 80% of the split surface area is aggregate, and the colour change due to permeated water is generally only visible in the cement paste. Some researchers have cut concrete specimens and dried them to evaluate mass changes due to water transfer, and to determine the moisture distribution [3] . Alternatively, humidity sensors can be used to measure the moisture distribution [4] or water penetration depth in concrete [5] . Justnes et al. [6] and Pleinert et al. [7] applied neutron radiography to observe water in cementitious materials; however, it was found that the sample thickness had to be limited to a few centimetres to allow the neutron ray to completely pass through the sample. The above methods only yield one- to two-dimensional information.

In this paper, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to observe water permeation through concrete. MRI can acquire three-dimensional information because it receives radio-frequency signals from any position in the sample at which hydrogen atoms are present. Moreover, it is non-destructive and enables the observation of water movement in real time. However, a disadvantage of this method is that, as strong magnets are implemented, MRI cannot be applied to reinforced concrete because of the strong attraction of steel; additionally, magnetic materials such as steel bars cause distortion of the obtained images. In their study using MRI to observe concrete structures, Marfisi et al. [8] reported that magnetic components in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) affect the captured images. In addition, Marfisi et al. [9] employed MRI to evaluate fractures in concrete. They reported that limestone and quartz aggregates are preferred to observe concrete via MRI and that granite is not suitable. Kaufmann et al. [10] implemented MRI to observe water permeation through concrete specimens, but as they used OPC, the obtained images were not clear. It was found that deuterated water can yield marginal improvements in the image, but it is expensive. Additionally, Kaufmann et al. did not explicitly confirm whether the penetration depth captured via MRI was correct, as they merely calculated the depth via determination of mass increase due to immersion, which was accomplished by comparing the dry and saturated masses.

The objective of this paper is to study the applicability of MRI to the observation of water permeation through concrete. To begin, the necessary parameters for MRI were determined by evaluating the hardened cement paste (HCP) made with white Portland cement (WPC). WPC was used because magnetic components in OPC affected the captured image, as will be discussed in a later section. Then, HCPs made with WPC and maintained at various levels of relative humidity (RH) were observed via MRI to determine the threshold of water detection. Next, HPCs dried at various temperatures were soaked in water; the permeation depth was subsequently imaged via MRI, and the observed depth was compared to the depth as measured on the splitting surface. Lastly, concrete specimens with lightweight aggregate (LWA) and limestone aggregate (LSA) were prepared and observed via MRI to determine the effects of aggregates on the obtained images. Concrete with the commonly used granite aggregate was not studied because Marfisi et al. [8] has already reported that the obtained MRI image of concrete containing granite was distorted.

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Pemilihan batu untuk konstruksi bangunan

Pemilihan batu untuk konstruksi bangunan

Setelah pemilihan batu berdasarkan estetika, penting untuk memastikan apakah batu tersebut menunjukkan sifat fisik dan daya tahan yang diperlukan untuk tetap dalam kondisi kerja untuk waktu yang lama. Konfirmasikan nama tradisional batu tersebut dan uji di lapangan untuk mengetahui sifat-sifat seperti coretan, warna, kekerasan, dll dalam pemilihan batu.

Identifikasi batu
  • Kualitas, kuantitas & batu tersedia

Lebih baik untuk memastikan apakah jumlah dan kualitas batu yang Anda butuhkan tersedia di tambang atau tidak?

  • Penggunaan dan tujuan batu di dalam gedung

Penggunaan atau tujuan khusus dari batu tersebut harus diketahui pada tahap awal karena setiap penggunaan mungkin memerlukan sifat batu yang berbeda dan untuk memiliki sifat yang berbeda batu yang digunakan juga berbeda.

Di area dengan keausan yang keras, eksposur yang parah, polusi atmosfer dan pembasahan berulang, serta untuk area batu kerja yang diukir atau dicetak dengan kekuatan yang lebih tinggi dan daya tahan yang intens diperlukan. Sifat fisik seperti massa jenis, kuat tekan dan porositas diukur untuk menentukan keawetannya.

  • Metode yang diadopsi untuk konstruksi batu

Mesin yang tersedia untuk memotong, memasang dan memoles batu mempengaruhi pemilihan batu karena batu yang lebih keras membutuhkan mesin yang tajam dan berat dan sebaliknya.

  • Tunjangan untuk kondisi setelahnya

Gerakan diferensial yang disebabkan oleh muai panas / kontraksi dapat terjadi antara rangka struktur atau dinding dukungan dan kelongsong batu, dan perhatian yang tepat perlu diberikan pada metode pencampuran untuk menghindari kegagalan

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